Rose Anatomy

Flower Stem








Pollination: When the pollen produced on the anther of a flower moves to the stigma. There are two main ways that flowers are pollinated — by insects and by the wind.

Fertilization: When the pollen grain lands on the stigma, a pollen tube grows down from the grain, through the style and into the ovary.

Then, male ‘gametes’ (reproductive cells) pass from the pollen grain along the tube to the ovary, where they join with female gametes in the ‘ovules‘.

Sporophyte Generation: Once a rose seed develops after fertilization, it is encased in a dark, red fruit to attract animal dispersers. If conditions are favorable, the seed will germinate and a period of growth and development will follow.

Seed and Fruit: The reproductive structure is protected by a seed coat and contains an embryonic plant and a supply of food. The rose seed is enclosed within a dark red fruit, which usually appears in the fall, to attract potential animal dispersers. The embryo develops a root, shoot and two cotyledons, which help digest, absorb and transfer food from the endosperm to the embryo.

Seed and Fruit Germination

Flower: The fruit soon blooms into a beautiful flower

Gametophyte Generation: Once the rose sporophyte undergoes meiosis and produces haploid spores, the spores undergo mitosis and differentiation. The male gametophyte is a tough, watertight pollen grain, which must drift on the wind or be carried by an animal to another rose’s embryo sac, the female gametophyte.